Internet protocol suite is a computer networking model and set of communications protocols used on Internet and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because of its protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). These were the first networking protocols defined in this standard. Often also called the Internet model, it was originally also known as the DoD model, because the development of the networking model was funded by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense.
TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be packaged, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination. This functionality is organized into four abstraction layers which are used to sort all related protocols according to the scope of networking involved. From lowest to highest, the layers are the link layer, containing communication technologies for a single network segment (link); the internet layer, connecting hosts across independent networks, thus establishing internet working; the transport layer handling host-to-host communication; and the application layer, which provides process-to-process application data exchange.
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