How does an email server work?

Email marketing has gained immense popularity in the past few decades – and for all the good reasons! Email marketing is the act of sending a commercial message, usually to a group of people, through the use of an email account.

Almost every email sent to a potential, or existing customer is considered email marketing in the broadest sense. It entails sending advertisements, soliciting business, or soliciting sales or donations through the use of email.

But have you ever wondered how an email server works?

If yes, then read this post; we are going to discuss how an email server operates in this article.

So, what is the procedure for sending an email?

Each email message is composed of text files and attachments. As with all data transmitted over the internet, an email is divided into smaller packets.

When the sender presses the send button, all of the packets are transported to a central computer that hosts the email service, also called the email server.

The email service subsequently sends these packets across the internet to the recipient’s email server. The recipient’s mail server searches for, locates, and stores the email in the recipient’s inbox. The email client reassembles the packets to create an entire message. Logging into his account, the recipient downloads the email.

Numerous email providers include Gmail, Yahoo Mail, and so on. Aside from that, there is client email software, such as Outlook Express, Microsoft Outlook, Apple Mail, Hiri, Thunderbird, Mac OS X, etc.

One must have an email address to send or receive email messages. Each mail account is associated with a unique username-password pair.

Each email has the sender’s address (for example, [email protected]) and the recipient’s address ([email protected]) in the “To field.”

How does an email server operate?

When an email is sent, the computer establishes a connection to the mail server of your email service. A server is a centralized computer that is responsible for the management of a certain type of service.

The email server that is in charge of email transmission is referred to as the SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) server. One SMTP server forwards the message to another SMTP server, which relays it to the target over multiple hops.

The SMTP server immediately begins attempting to determine the recipient’s location.

When an email is sent, the email client establishes a connection to the sender’s email service’s SMTP server (e.g., smtp.gmail.com). The client communicates the sender’s address, the recipient’s address, and the message’s content.

It locates the recipient’s domain name – e.g., [email protected] – by using the recipient’s mail ID (i.e., [email protected]).

Each domain name is associated with a distinct Web address, referred to as an Internet protocol (IP) address.

The SMTP server forwards the message to the outgoing mail server on its local network (POP3 or IMAP).

The Domain Name Registry maintains the connection between domain names and their IP addresses.

The SMTP server then connects to the server that hosts the registry, which is known as the DNS Server.

The DNS server returns the address to the SMTP server, which then forwards the email to the recipient’s email service’s SMTP server (let’s call it smtp.gmail.com).

This SMTP server verifies and certifies that the email addressed to [email protected] is legitimate and then forwards it to its POP3 equivalent (or the IMAP server).

Post Office Protocol (POP3) servers are responsible for receiving emails. The number “3” denotes the protocol’s version number.

POP3 servers support the creation of mail accounts (all the email IDs).

Once a message is delivered to a POP3 server, it is then retained and saved in the recipient’s mail account until the recipient logs in and examines his or her email.

Wrapping it up

So, this is how an email server works. Hopefully, this article has been informative to you and helped you understand the working email server in detail.

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